美國軍事戰略中心轉向亞太 美國總統歐巴馬(中)美東時間5日在五角大廈公布新的軍事戰略計畫,美國在預算緊縮之際,將裁減地面部隊規模,改以海、空軍對付中共與伊朗的威脅,放棄需要大批地面部隊且漫長的反叛亂作戰。(AFP) 美國總統歐巴馬美東時間5日在五角大廈公布新的軍事戰略計畫,美國在預算緊縮之際,將裁減地面部隊規模,但歐巴馬表示,美軍將繼續保持軍事優勢,同時將把軍事重心轉向亞太地區和中東,改以海、空軍對付中共與伊朗的威脅,放棄需要大批地面部隊且漫長的反叛亂作戰。 歐巴馬罕見地出席了五角大廈的記者會並發表講話。有官員表示,總統參加五角大廈記者會,在歷史上是首次。縮減地面部隊規模 歐巴馬表示,美軍在經歷了10年戰爭後,處於一個轉型期。美國當前的經濟狀況迫使美國削減國防開支,軍隊預算在未來10年內將減少 4,870億美元(約新台幣14兆6,910億元),約占國防預算8%。因此,美國將縮減地面部隊規模,減少在歐洲的軍事存在,改以海、空軍對付中共與伊 節能燈具 朗的威脅,放棄需要大批地面部隊且漫長的反叛亂作戰。 國防部官員表示,目前57萬人的陸軍可能削減至約49萬人。美國地面部隊將不再大到足以在伊拉克和阿富汗地區進行長時間、大規模的剿匪行動。 雖然美軍規模將會縮減,但歐巴馬也表示,「但世界必須了解,美國將維持其武裝部隊的軍事超強優勢,美軍將保持靈活性,準備應對各種緊急事態和威脅。」 針對美國軍方未來能否在同一時間應對兩個主要衝突的猜測,國防部長帕內塔(Leon Panetta)說,「我們會有能力面對和戰勝一次超過一個對手(的戰鬥)。」 美國參謀長聯席會議主席登普西(Martin Dempsey)將軍說,美國軍隊仍然遍及全球。「我們是一個全球大國,我們必須有能力開展各種各樣的軍事活動和作戰行動。」 五角大廈的計畫也指出了新的投入領域,如特種作戰部隊,仍將是重中之重。特種部隊的關鍵任務包括去年成功打死賓拉登,而促成那次行 節能燈具動的部分偵察技術也將獲得撥款,譬如無人駕駛飛機及融匯不同來源情報的能力,以及其他反恐舉措、網路戰和遏制核武器擴散等。 5日公布的戰略計畫,細節不多,但它被認為將起到指導國防開支的作用。預計國防部將在本月晚些時候詳細說明它所提出的削減計畫,並在2月上旬公布完整方案。11艘航母戰鬥群全保留 美軍已於去年年底撤軍伊拉克,其對外重心將轉向亞太地區。接近帕內塔的軍事專家表示,歐巴馬反對將美國目前的11個航母戰鬥群削減至10個,認為美國需要在太平洋地區保持足夠的威懾力量,以應對來自中共當局的可能威脅。 儘管美國國防預算將面臨重大削減,不過,歐巴馬去年11月訪問澳大利亞時表示,縮減美國國防開支不會以犧牲亞太地區利益為代價。帕內塔在去年10月訪問日本時也表示:「我們將會加強我們在太平洋地區的存在。」◇Obama Puts His Stamp on Strategy for a Leaner Military By ELISABETH BUMIL 酒店經紀LER and THOM SHANKER WASHINGTON — President Obama has for the first time put his own stamp on an all-encompassing American military policy by turning from the grinding ground wars that he inherited from the Bush administration and refocusing on what he described as a smaller, more agile force across Asia, the Pacific and the Middle East. In an unusual appearance at the Pentagon briefing room on Thursday, Mr. Obama outlined a new national defense strategy driven by three realities: the winding down of a decade of war in Iraq and Afghanistan, a fiscal crisis demanding hundreds of billions of dollars in Pentagon budget cuts and a rising threat from China and Iran. A fourth reality, not mentioned in the briefing room, was Mr. Obama 售屋網’s re-election campaign and the chorus of Republican presidential candidates who have sought to portray him as decimating the Pentagon budget and being weak in his response to Iran. Mr. Obama, who spoke surrounded by a tableau of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in dress uniforms and with chests full of medals, underscored the national security successes of his administration — the ending of the Iraq war, the killing of Osama bin Laden and the ouster of Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi of Libya — before declaring that the United States would downsize to a smaller ground force, get rid of “outdated cold war-era systems” and step up investments in intelligence-gathering and cyberwarfare . He also said, in what seemed aimed at the Republicans as well as the Defense Department offic 網路行銷ials in the room, that “our military will be leaner, but the world must know the United States is going to maintain our military superiority.” Despite the pageantry, many elements of the new strategy had a “back to the future” quality and echoed the goals of a smaller but more technically proficient military advanced by Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld before the Sept. 11 attacks. Those plans were soon overtaken by the need to build up ground forces for the kind of conventional wars that the Pentagon had not envisioned a decade ago. “Conventionally it makes perfect sense to avoid fighting worst-case wars,” said Anthony H. Cordesman, a military analyst at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. “But the 20th century, and even the 21st century, is a warning abo 房屋二胎ut how well anybody can do long-term forecasting. I have listened for decades to, ‘This time we’re going to be more efficient, this time we’re going to use technology.’ ” Pentagon officials acknowledged the risks in a strategy that declares that American ground forces will no longer be large enough to conduct prolonged, large-scale counterinsurgency campaigns like those in Iraq and Afghanistan — Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta has said the Army must shrink to 490,000 soldiers over the next decade, from 570,000 — and so said they were prepared to change course if required. In a briefing after Mr. Obama’s remarks, Adm. James A. Winnefeld Jr., the vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said the new strategy embraced “reversibility” that would allow the Pentagon to avoid “departmental hubris 襯衫.” In other words, the Defense Department would begin a slow build-down of the Army that could be reversed and, in a national security emergency, it could order up a massive mobilization of the National Guard and Reserves. Other analysts said the strategy appeared good but that without the details — specifically, what kind of budget cuts it would result in — it was hard to judge. The specific cuts are to be made public in coming weeks. “It’s kind of an incomplete,” said Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., a military expert at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments. “It’s like when you jump out of an aircraft with a parachute, the first five seconds are ‘so far, so good.’ But you’re still waiting for the chute to open.” White House and Pentagon officials said that Mr. Obama spent a substantial amount of ti 烤肉食材me with military officials on the new strategy, which they defined as six meetings he had on the strategy with military leaders and regional commanders between September and late December. Although other presidents have been deeply immersed in military policy, for Mr. Obama the time commitment appears to signal an interest in a policy that turns the page from President George W. Bush’s wars. “Certainly it indicates a level of interest on the president’s part, over and above what we’ve seen from him before,” Mr. Krepinevich said. The new strategy document finally defines away the Defense Department’s historic requirement to have the ability to fight and win two wars at once — a measure that one official said “has been on life-support for years.” The strategy released under Mr. Obama in 2010 said the military was responsible for 買屋 “maintaining the ability to prevail against two capable nation-state aggressors.” In contrast, the strategy released Thursday said the military must be able to fight one war, but is responsible only for “denying the objectives of — or imposing unacceptable costs on — an opportunistic aggressor in a second region.” Senior Pentagon officials said that viewing military requirements through something as static as the two-war model had become outdated, and that the true measurement was whether the Pentagon could field a force capable of carrying out a wide range of military actions to protect the nation’s interests. Pentagon officials made it clear that the department’s priorities in coming years would be financing for defense and offense in cyberspace, for Special Operations forces and for the broad area of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance. 租房子  .
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